Church history is a subject that, sadly, many Protestants fail to study. This is not only problematic given the propensity of heretics to distort that history,1 but it also can be a hindrance to our present day theological systematizing. The situation isn’t helped by the many pressing time constraints placed upon us by our other, admittedly, more important duties. Not many have the time to read through the entirety of ancient church fathers in a way that can inform our defense of the truth against heretics, as well as provide us with a robust and thought-provoking theological starting point for our study of systematics.If the job has been done, moreover, why try to reinvent the wheel? Patristic scholars have produced many works in this field, secondary sources that have undergone the scrutiny of other patristic scholars and have held their own as trustworthy guides to understanding the fathers. Khaled Anatolios, a leading Athanasian scholar, has produced not only a clear and concise biography of Athanasius, but an equally concise and clear explanation of his theological system in his work Athanasius: The Coherence of His Thought. In it, Anatolios expertly demonstrates the consistency, coherence, and brilliance of Athanasius’ system of theology, deriving his conclusions not from a single text, nor from a simplistic word study limited to a select few texts written by Athanasius, but from the entirety of Athanasius’ corpus.Anatolios begins this work with an examination of the theme of the relation between God and creation prior to Athanasius…
by Michael R. Burgos Jr.
§ I. Summary
Upon its face, it would seem as though the utilization of the word “quadrilateral” would imply that the aforementioned components are on a par with one another. That is, the word seems to convey the idea that each of the components comprising the quadrilateral are equal in their ability and authority to provide theology. Outler later came to regret the phrase for that very reason. He stated, “The term ‘quadrilateral’ does not occur in Wesley—and more than once, I have regretted having coined it for contemporary use, since it has been so widely misconstrued.”3 Outler’s regret is well taken, as some contemporary critics seem to rely heavily upon the phrase, rather than the definition of the phrase.
Wesleyanism affirms only the sixty-six books of the Protestant canon as theopneustos. As such, Scripture is the first of the four sources of theology in the quadrilateral, and it is the most authoritative. The Scriptures are the “first” and “final” authority in the derivation of theology and thus all other sources are viewed as subservient to it. The paradigm observes that it is the Scriptures that are sufficient to convey the totality of the gospel, but it simultaneously affirms that human reason, tradition, and experience are the “lenses through which we read Scripture.” Hence there is a tension between these elements such that they are interwoven, not unlike how human beings are thought to actually receive theology. It is the text of the Bible that is “God’s self disclosure,” such that through reading the text faithfully will merit the reader with a portrayal of the “overflow of God’s heart.” According to the quadrilateral, the Scriptures require faith before one can affirm the contents therein, including the miraculous.
The Wesleyan Quadrilateral is distinct from the “three legged stool” of the Roman Catholic faith. Within Catholicism “Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture make up a single sacred deposit of the Word of God.” Additionally, the Roman magisterium is viewed as the “successors of the apostles so that, enlightened by the Spirit of truth, they may faithfully preserve, expound and spread it abroad by their preaching.” Thus, the magisterium, Scripture, and tradition are on equal footing within the Roman Catholic framework. Wesleyanism, like other Protestant traditions, are decisively contrary to the view expounded by the Roman tradition and its understanding of the derivation of theology. Moreover, while Protestantism is interested in the continuance of biblical orthodoxy over and against heresy, the Roman Catholic viewpoint is thought to be more concerned with unity.
The second component of the Wesleyan Quadrilateral is reason. Reason is defined as “the mental capacity or power to use the human mind in reaching and establishing truth.”Within the quadrilateral, reason functions as a source of theology . . .