A Very Brief Survey of the Laws of Logic in Scripture
January 21, 2013 § 7 Comments
i.e. It is eternal and unchanging -
However, now we must go on to show that the Laws of Logic
The Law of Identity &
The Law of Non-Contradiction:
The foundational law of logic is expressed in the formula A:A.
The second law, the Law of Non-Contradiction, is expressed
in the formula ~[A:~A]. These two laws imply one another,
as the following Scriptures will demonstrate.
God said to Moses, “I am who I am.”
God is God; God is identical to Himself. This further implies
that God is not whom He is not, God is not identical to whom
He is not, or ~[A:~A]. Idolatry, it should be noted,
is a violation of this law of logic as it ascribes deity
to some other being than Yahweh and can be formulated
as A : ~A, which is false.
[ii.] Jeremiah 13:23:
“Can the Ethiopian change his skin
or the leopard his spots?
Then also you can do good
who are accustomed to do evil.”
The law is evident if we read the passage more woodenly.
God is asking rhetorical questions which may be expressed
as negations without changing the meaning of the text.
An Ethiopian cannot change his skin.
The leopard cannot change his spots.
The evil cannot do good.
The skin of the Ethiopian is definitive of the Ethiopian,
this cannot change without the Ethiopian ceasing to be
an Ethiopian. Therefore, an Ethiopian is an Ethiopian,
or A:A. This is the same point being made about the leopard
and the evil. These propositions, furthermore imply that the skin
of the Ethiopian is not the skin of the non-Ethiopian, or ~[A:~A].
“Therefore render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s,
and to God the things that are God’s.”
“The things that are Caesar’s” is definitive of Caesar, and ”the
things that are God’s” is definitive of God. Thus, the things
that are Caesar’s are the things that are Caesar’s; likewise,
the things that are God’s are the things that are God’s; A:A.
Consequently, the things that are God’s are not the things
that are Caesar’s, vice versa, or ~[A:~A].
[iii.] John 3:6:
“That which is born of the flesh is flesh,
and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.”
Flesh and Spirit are two distinct categories; therefore, flesh
is flesh and Spirit is spirit, or A:A. It follows from this
that Flesh is not Spirit, and Spirit is not Flesh, or ~[A:~A].
[iv.] 1st Corinthians 15:39-41:
For not all flesh is the same, but there is one kind
for humans, another for animals, another for birds,
and another for fish. There are heavenly bodies and earthly
bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is of one kind,
and the glory of the earthly is of another. There is one
glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon,
and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory.
Within the genus ”flesh” there are species of ”flesh” (e.g. Human,
animal, bird, etc), and each is distinct from the other and identical
to itself. This selection of verses emphasizes the Laws of Identity
and Non-Contradiction repeatedly. Human flesh is human flesh, or A:A;
human flesh is not animal flesh ~[A:~A], and so on.
The same laws are given emphasis in Paul’s statement regarding the two
species of bodies (e.g. Heavenly and Earthly), from which he further
deduces that their respective glories are unique to themselves (A:A),
which implies that the glory of one is not shared with another (~[A:~A]).
Further, he teaches us that even within the species heavenly bodies
the glory of one body is not the same as the glory of another body.
Hence, the glory of the sun is the sun’s glory alone [A:A & ~[A:~A]).
[v.] Psalm 90:2b:
…from everlasting to everlasting you are God…
God is God, or A:A. Therefore, God is not non-God, or ~[A:~A]
The Law of the Excluded Middle: The Law of the Excluded Middle
follows necessarily from the Laws of Identity and Non-Contradiction.
Since A:A & ~[A:~A], then either A or ~A. This law is expressed
in the formula, A ˅ ~A.
[i.] Matthew 6:24:
“No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and
love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other.
You cannot serve God and money.”
There are two options here that exclude one another: Either A
(i.e. The man will hate one and love the other) or ~A
(i.e. The man will be devoted to one/love one and despise/hate the other).
Because A:A & ~[A:~A], A ˅ ~A.
[ii.] Matthew 12:33:
“Either make the tree good and its fruit good,
or make the tree bad and its fruit bad,
for the tree is known by its fruit.”
Good trees are good trees, or A:A; good trees are not bad trees,
or ~[A:~A]; therefore, either a tree is good or it is bad (i.e. A ˅ ~A).
[See also, Romans 6:16 and James 3:10-12.]
[iii.] 1st Kings 18:21: Elijah came near to all
the people and said, “How long will you go limping between two
different opinions? If the LORD is God, follow him;
but if Baal, then follow him.” And the people did not answer him a word.
Either (A) Yahweh is God or (~A)Yahweh is not God; likewise,
either (A) Baal is God, or (~A)Baal is not God.
One cannot worship Yahweh and Baal; therefore, A ˅ ~A.